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Rogoźnik

Rogoźnik

Rogoża (bulrush) is a perennial whose rhizomes containing a lot of starch were used as raw material to produce mats, plaited work, baskets, and other items, e.g. construction mats. It gave its name to the stream flowing here – Wielki Rogoźnik and to the settlement situated upon it - Rogoźnik.  Rogoźnik is situated at an altitude of about 620-630 m above sea level, in the Nowotarsko-Orawska Valley and is an agricultural village. Farmlands stretch from the south, from limestone hills belonging to the Pieniny Klippen Belt to peat bogs on the northern border of the village. The layout of land is open-field, in a form of narrow strips with field roads. Traditionally, the parts of the fields were named after nicknames or names of their first owners (at the beginning, eight families settled there); “Śmietańska, Hajnosia, Mrożkowa, Wieprzkowa, Komperdzia, Tylkowa, Kwakowa and Pankowa”.

The meadows behind the river are called Dolny and Górny Groń, and in the northern part of the field they are called Targanice, Za Starą Drogą and Międzylasy. The boggy land next to the peat bogs („Puścizna”), until recently used to obtain fuel, is drained by Czerwony Stream (flows into Czarny Dunajec in Ludźmierz). The history of Rogoźnik starts in 1234 when the voivode of Kraków, Teodor Gryfina, received Podhale from Duke Henryk I the Bearded. A few years later, he donated that land to the Cistercians, whom he had brought from Jędrzejów to Ludźmierz. The Cistercians moved to Szczyrzyc and as a result of the confiscation of the monastery property in the 14th century, the village became a Royal village again. Although we may encounter the name of Rogoźnik Wielki and Mniejszy in the document of the Cracovian duke from 1254, the village was often called Ciche or Bystre. In the 17th century, the village council of Rogoźnik was leased by the Kwak family and according to the inspection of 1763, Rogoźnik was a part of the Nowy Targ starosty.

In 1809, Rogoźnik became a private property – after the confiscation of the monastery property, it belonged to the Homolacs family (Hungarian gentry family which also had properties in Zakopane and Kuźnice and then moved to Balice near Kraków), later on it was bought by Jew Aron Mendel. In the years 1880-1931, more than 350 people emigrated to the United States „to earn for living”, which significantly reduced the number of the villagers. An important moment for the village were the geological surveys carried out in 1829 by Ludwik Zejszner, during which it was found out that abundant deposits of limestone could be exploited. The company Dudziński (owner of a manor in Maniowy), Potoczek (lawyer from Kraków), Rajski (former Mayor of Nowy Targ) purchased Skałka Rogoża (former name of Skałka Rogoźnicka) from Aron Mendel and created a quarry. In the village, a big furnace to burn lime was built and the stack of the “lime kiln” is still a characteristic feature of the landscape of Rogoźnik. Until 1890, there was no school in Rogoźnik. The first teacher employed back then, Władysław Nalepka, taught children in a room rented in Wojciech Tylka’s house and for more 3 years he made efforts to build the school.

The villagers did not want the school. In 1892, a site to build the school was purchased, however, the owner regretted that piece of land and in a hurry chose the foundations elsewhere (he even consecrated them on their own, not waiting for the priest) – as a result of that, the school was built on the springs and remained moldy till the end of its existence in 1985 (then, under the guise of another renovation, the school was completely demolished and the new one was built). The walls were built in the years 1893-1894. Once the school was consecrated on 1.09.1894 by Rev. Piotr Krawczyński, educational activities started and although during the winter the building was renovated and plastered three times, at least Rogoźnik had its own school. The school started functioning dynamically after regaining independence in 1918. Its headmaster was the teacher, Ludwika Romaniszynówna, who organised the cultural life of the village as well as cooperation with the local Association of Folk Youth and Volunteer Fire Service. Once Mrs Romaniszyn retired, the school fell into decline again. In 1939, a teacher named Szewczyk was conscripted into the army and never returned to Rogoźnik, another teacher had to flee from the Germans.

School. In 1942, the Tischner family moved to Rogoźnik where the father was appointed as the school headmaster. The new flat, just like that in Raba, had two rooms. In Rogoźnik, Tischner graduated from elementary school and the first grade of lower secondary school (as part of underground education – 1945). In Rogoźnik, just like in Łopuszna, the Tischner family also lived in the school. The former school, where the Tischner family lived, was located in place of the today’s school. The school building was made of bricks; on one side, there was a long, bright classroom, on the other – the flat with two rooms, kitchen and pantry. On the roof of the building, there was a bell which called the children to the classroom. When the Germans left Rogoźnik, the Russians came to the village. Thus, the Tischner family had to move out of the school.

They were hosted by the Kwak family „from Pabian”. They lived with them for 2 weeks. Then again, they could return to their home in the school. However, when the Russian soldiers needed the school building again, the Tischner family had to look for another flat anew. Stanisław Kwak „Wilkus” hosted them, although ten persons lived in his house. The Tischner family occupied one room. But not for long. A Russian colonel settled in Stanisław Kwak’s house so all had to live in one room. They lived like that for about 2 months. When the Russians were gone, the Tischners could return to the devastated, robbed school. Nowadays, Rev. Prof. Józef Tischner, who in 2002 was chosen as a patron of the school, became a role model for children and adolescents. His perspective on man, freedom and the world is the guideline for those who learn there.

The cultural route „In the Podhale footsteps of Father Tischner”

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